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What is the structure of a USB hub?

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Author : PURPLELEC
Update time : 2023-06-20 11:37:12
  A USB hub is a convenient way to add more USB ports to a device. When using a USB hub, all devices must share the bandwidth and power from the computer's USB ports. The bandwidth and power of the computer ports remain the same no matter how many devices are connected.
  However, USB hubs have their limitations. For example, connecting a device that consumes too much power increases its instability, requiring users to read instructions before using it properly. When users want to connect to power common electronic devices such as mobile phones, mice and keyboards, USB hubs can meet these basic needs.
USB hubs
  The structure of the USB hub:
  A USB interface can be split into multiple working USB interfaces.
  It uses the second-generation USBHUB controller.
  It is easy to use and can be directly connected to the computer without external power supply.
  Once the computer recognizes it, it installs, no drivers required. You can plug and play freely.
  It supports USB2.0 with speeds up to 480Mbps and is backward compatible with USB1.1.
  It also includes a current protection device.
  It is compatible with Windows95/98/Me/2000/XP, Linux2.4 and MacOS8.5 or later.
  Operation of the USB hub
  A USB hub has an "upstream port" that connects to the host computer, and several "downstream ports" that connect to other hubs or peripherals/connections.
  Most systems operate with transparent hubs and do not appear on any system-visible maps. Data received from an upstream port (i.e. host) is broadcast to all devices connected to a downstream port, while data received from a downstream port is only routed to the upstream port and the host.
  With the introduction of USB3, a point-to-point routing feature was introduced, where a routing string sent in the packet header allows the host to direct data to a single destination port. This reduces the USB "data volume on the network", while also reducing power consumption.
  Another advantage of using a USB hub is that it can increase the length of the system. For example, for low-speed USB1.1 devices, the length of the USB cable is limited to 3 meters. The hub can be used as a powered USB repeater, adding up to 5 meters of cable length at a time.