USB Type-C - or USB-C for short - is a physical USB connector. It replaced Micro-USB connectors previously used by most Android phones. It will eventually even replace USB Type-A, which is the standard larger-scale USB connector that everyone probably thinks of when they hear "USB." Even Apple has added USB-C to the latest iPhone 15 models.
USB Type-C is a versatile, backward-compatible, and future-proof connector. While the standard doesn't necessarily reflect speed increase, it is capable of much quicker data transfer.
USB Type-C also allows charging a wider range of devices because it can transmit up to 240W of power, which is enough to charge most laptops and ridiculously quick charging of smartphones.
That means you can use a single cable with a USB Type-C connector to quickly transfer data to your device while you charge it.
But the most interesting thing about USB-C is that the connector is reversible: there is no "right way up." You can blindly stick it into a port on a device, and it'll smoothly go in and work without the never-ending hassle of searching for the correct side.
It's important to remember that USB-C does not denote the cable's speed or capabilities; it is just the name of the plug. That's why USB-C cables can vary greatly in transfer and charging speeds. That's why you'll hear about USB4 2.0 or USB 3.2 - these are the data transfer standards.
So, you can get a USB 2 USB-C cable which supports data transfer of up to 480 Mbps, or you can get a USB4 2.0 USB-C cable - it supports up to 80 Gbps speeds. The difference is quite massive.